Addressing Early Childhood Literacy Issues

Video Transcript follows:

Good afternoon everyone. And again, thank you for joining us for our colloquium presentation today. I’m Dr. Bill Fisher, I’m a member of the iSchool faculty and I’ll be our moderator for this afternoon. Our session, as you see here on this first slide, will be dealing with Early Childhood Literacy. And we have two speakers today. Our one speaker is Beth Wrenn-Estes, who’s an instructor at the iSchool here. Beth has been with the iSchool for about eight or nine years now. And on two different occasions, has been recognized as a distinguished faculty member in providing a great deal of service and instruction to the school.

Our second speaker is Lynn Baker, who– that MLIS in case you see it start dripping off the slide, it’s because it’s fairly new. Lynn just graduated from the iSchool last spring, so congratulations, Lynn. She does teach as an adjunct professor in Northern Kentucky University. She’s a youth services specialist at– with the Frankfort Kentucky Public Library. And again, is also a recent author, so 2015 has been a big year for Lynn with the title of the work that you see there. And I’m going to turn things over to Lynn for her to get it started. >> Thank you so much for joining us today. We are going to dive right in. We have a lot to cover. And so we just like to welcome you and tell you how excited we are to be presenting this session. We’re going to cover Early Childhood Literacy and the Importance of Addressing the Whole Child Through Multi-Literacy Experiences.

In this presentation, we will define each of six different areas of multi-literacy that should be addressed in early literacy programs and services. And we’ll demonstrate how each one connects directly to preparing preschool children for school and to the education and experiences we should be giving as early childhood library service providers. So just some background information on what we’re going to cover, and we’ll go ahead and get started. So, you might be wondering what multi-literacies are if you haven’t heard this term before. We’re going to take a quick look at each of the various types of multi-literacy that we’ll cover today. And then we’ll break them down in more specific terms as we go through our presentation. Just to give you a brief definition of each, visual literacy is the understanding that visual representation, such as photographs or illustrations and graphics, convey information. Textual literacy is the understanding that printed text conveys meaning, which you are probably most familiar with this type of literacy.

 

Digital or media literacy is the understanding that video and audio representations convey information. And we’re going to talk a little bit about how those two work in tandem together. Information literacy is what you are all studying if you are in the iSchool or any MLIS program. This is the ability to interact with and communicate through technological resources, such as hardware or software and electronic programs. And then social literacy is the understanding that there are social rules and expectations, and this goes back to a child’s ability to abide by these rules within different social context. And then multi-sensory literacy is the ability for a child to interact and communicate through various senses. So now that we briefly defined each of the multi-literacies, we’ll take a look at specific examples of each and– and each one of the modes of literacy. So I mentioned visual literacy. One mode of visual literacy includes environmental print.

This is something that you might be familiar with as well. This type of literacy creates a link between printed words and real world objects. So the recognition of environmental print is usually a child’s first step toward learning how to read. Reading environmental print is simply the child’s ability to recognize that the visual aspects, familiar signs or logos in their world have meaning and they are able to connect those to real world information. Another type of visual literacy includes illustrations, such as those you see on the screen here from picture books. This type of visual literacy includes a child’s ability to tell a story through reading the illustrations or pictures. So when text is included, print awareness is fostered through the support provided through the visual literacy, such as the images or graphics and illustrations. But as you can see here on the screen, wordless picture books are read by the child’s recognition of what is happening in the pictures on the page. And so words are not something that is required for this type of visual literacy, however this type of visual literacy, as we’ll talk about in a little while, does support the actual reading of words and the print recognition.

The use of props is another type of use of visual literacy. And props, which the fourth language in printed text, should help children connect to the story being told. So, props might include things such as flannel, or magnet board, story pieces, or puppets, or other visual representations of a story or song or rhyme that you are verbally telling. And so each one of these representations on the screen you see represent things that would be used to support the story or songs, such as the Goodnight Moon Puppet or the finger puppets or the little ducks if you’re singing Five Little Ducks.

So, all of these work as visual cues. And now I’m going to turn it over to Beth who’s going to talk to you a bit about textual literacy. >> Besides what is written below the heading there as some prompts for you or a definition as a way, I want to add a couple of things to that that I find extremely important to understand about textual literacy. The ability to understand that text has meaning no matter what form it takes and the children to understand that printed symbols on the page make up words no matter if they look like something that child is familiar with or not. So let’s look at a few of the visuals on the slide. On the right of this slide are book covers from Eric Carle’s The Very Hungry Caterpillar.

The book on the left is in English and the one on the right is in French. The child’s understanding that the same material can be written in different types of text or fonts or languages is what they will acquire through textual awareness. Look right above The Hungry Caterpillar books covers and see how the word apple still has the same meaning even if the form the word takes is in three different text and fonts. We wanted to include an example of symbols children may not be able to make sense of. So we chose braille. The photo represents how children with visual difficulties– I’m sorry, visual disabilities feel rather than see as they learn to recognize symbols.

Textual literacy also gives children a general knowledge that not all text is something that they will or can make sense of. I’ll turn the mike back to Lynn now to talk about digital and media literacy. >> The digital and media literacy are interrelated. And let’s go to our next slide here. Digital literacy is a child’s ability to access, apply, and use digital resources to interact with technology-based programs.

Digital resources may include things like pre-fabricated games or other pre-made items which can be manipulated and changed to create new creations. Media literacy develops out of the child’s use of digital media literacy. So media literacy is the ability to access, examine, and communicate through a social or communication-based platform. And while young children will not generally use social media programs or communication platforms as this is not developmentally appropriate, the development of digital literacy skills builds the foundation that’s needed for media literacy skills later. So think of these two types of literacy as pre-reading or emergent literacy which would be the digital literacy versus reading text later on which would be the media literacy.

So that’s just a quick representation to help you understand the difference in those two. >> So a colleague and I were recently talking about information systems designed for children and how important the homepage design and the navigation were for the ability to access information through an information system. My friend told me about a four-year-old boy that comes into his library. The child is use the children’s computers because his parents allow him to use theirs at home and he enjoys playing games and doing FaceTime with his grandparents, which by the way, he can do on his own. He needs little help from his parents to find the games on the computer and he can actually start a FaceTime.

He now wants to learn how to use the children’s online catalogue at the library. The which is he learning how to access the book database is mainly because the way to enter the catalogue is easy to understand for him. The link to access it is through a wonderful cartoonish-looking golden retriever. Click on the image of the retriever, and you are in. The little boy looks for the picture of the dog on the screen every time he comes in and knows that that is where the books are.

As he grows, that knowledge will have more comprehension about the system and about searching the online catalogues through typing in words that create a search strategy to find the information he wants. The screen capture on your left is actually from the library that Lynn works in in Kentucky. It shows what their online catalogue page looks like. And see, another familiar animal is used that most children identify with, a dog, at the visual cue as to where the online catalogue is on the screen. On the right side of the screen is a screen capture from the children’s page at the San Francisco Public Library.

Notice immediately that your eye goes to the picture in each of the squares first, and then to the words underneath. That’s deliberate. The square on the top right connects back to the link on the online catalogue. So as you see above, along the right top bar, there’s a little cable car there with the book, a cable car with a book, sorry. So when you scroll across that, the word read appears. And clicking on it takes you to the next screen where the word appears above the first icon, which is a little worm reading a book, and immediately the child knows to click on there if they’re looking for a book. So to the right is something that says Find Materials. So, older kids with reading and word recognition can find materials in this manner. Once the child is familiar with the icons and what they lead to, they can access all types of databases and information. They also start to comprehend how to use access and understand through their interaction with the information system. The information literacy is not something that is accomplished overnight or all of the different literacy is learned at the same time.

Some can be learned quickly, while others are more complicated and take longer. Information literacy is one of the more difficult literacies, but it’s important to keep strategies very specific to helping children learn and understand as their levels of ability develop as they get older. This is just a very basic overview of information literacy and it’s important in the development of the whole child, but I wanted to add one last comment that is of great importance to me as I’ve worked with information literacy in my school and public library experience. Caregivers, librarians, and teachers are a team in helping the child in the acquisition of information. It’s extremely important for caregivers and librarians to become aware of strategies starting in the home and extending into libraries and schools. Now back to Lynn for social literacy. >> Social literacy is a child’s understanding of social rules and expectations.

And so this literacy skill helps a child understand that there are certain rules and expectations. And the child will learn to self-regulate their own emotions in response to the social framework that they read from the world around them. So this includes a child’s ability to get along with and cooperate with others, and the ability to follow directions, and understand spoken or unspoken rules. Social literacy occurs across any setting that involves that communicating with other people. So it’s a very important type of literacy that will be used throughout life.

And in order to become successful within the classroom and successful within the world, a child needs to learn how to navigate socially. And so this is a very important aspect of literacy development and getting ready for school and looking at the whole child. >> So we’re going to take a look at multi-sensory literacy. And multi-sensory literacy is basically a part of multi-literacy which is the inclusion of all types of literacy involved in literacy acquisition. Multi-sensory literacy refers to hands-on methods of communicating and connecting to language and text through all of the senses. The child connecting with their senses enables easy retention and remember it’s for them. So let’s take a look at the more hands-on or kinesthetic experience. Hands-on experiences connect to visual concepts in the world. Artistic expression, art, provides a social emotional activity where children create and use narrative skills to tell you a story about what their paintings are about. The child with the headset on to the right is connecting to the world by understanding the information that they hear, the sounds that they hear, and to connect those with language or forming narratives. The Mouse Paint book, which you can see on the left bottom of the screen, shows how different activities come together.

You’ll notice that there’s a little board game and pictures of the mice, and there’s cards that show different aspects of it– of the concepts and the content of the book. And so there’s one more– the child learns that there is more than one way to express or learn that story. Say a child sees the actions in the book that by mixing red and blue together, you get purple. They then have the ability to take paint and mix red and blue together and get the same result, purple. Their artistic expression then allows the child to connect what they saw in the book to what they have experienced themselves, and therefore they know that what was in the book must be true.

The activity sparks their creativity to see what happens if you mix yellow and red together and so on. Creating opportunities for children to work with their sense of touch helps to spark powerful connections in the brain that help retain knowledge, and then have the ability to make general statements about that knowledge. The picture showing children using Play-Doh and the texture cards provide different touch experiences that then associate back to a multi-sensory experience. By using all the senses, children build one literacy skill on top of another. The different activities with the senses help the child see that they can take those skills and use them in multiple settings and not just a singular way. So Lynn is now going to talk to us– no, I’m sorry. I’m still talking. I’m sorry. So I wanted to include sensory story times in my part of the multi-literacy experience. I have been observing and doing some informal research in how story times contribute to multi-literacy experience for children with disabilities.

Many caregivers are afraid of taking their disabled child to a story time for many reasons. Being uncomfortable with others staring is a primary one. The behavior may be disrupting to others in attendance, but it is not the fault of the child with the disability or their caregivers. Libraries are beginning to buy the safe space dedicated to children with disabilities, thus drawing children who might not otherwise come to the library.

Another subject for another time is how to encourage the incorporation of materials appropriate to teaching understanding about disabled children into regular story times. Knowledge about the characteristics of different developmental disorders is critical for story time librarians. Children coming to a sensory story time can be somewhere on the autistic spectrum, have cerebral palsy, or be deaf or blind. Using different types of materials in your story time other than books is a way of reaching all of the children coming and exposing them to early literacy skills in creative ways.

The activities inherent in those activities include reading, talking, singing, and playing, the same ones that are the underlying literacy connection to regular story times as well. Children with development disorders can have trouble processing stimulation, noise, bright lighting, et cetera. They have poor fine motor skills, they have trouble with communicating socially, and are many ways prone to be overacted at inappropriate times. They have difficulty with balance and posture. All of these characteristics have to come under consideration when preparing a sensory story time. And always remember, our goal is to be inclusive.

We need to strive to include some activity that will benefit everyone. I’ve listed some of the things on this slide that are necessary for a sensory story time and that aren’t necessarily exclusive to a regular story time. But the importance of knowing your audience is the greatest importance in sensory story times. And speaking one on one with caretakers about the needs of their child helps you to provide an environment that is appropriate for all. It allows you to plan both the activities and the environment that you need to be successful. Play is a big part of sensory story time so the children can experience the feel of bubbles on their faces and bodies, play with all types of materials such as scarves and parachute material.

They can sit on squares with their caretakers right by them which gives children a sense of their personal space and that of the space of others on both sides of them. Music is one of the most important parts of a sensory story time. Music lights up so many parts of the brain and stimulates all types of reactions to create a calming atmosphere.

Add singing to the music mix and you have children hearing different sounds in finding out how words are broken down. Singing is a super way to connect and so is letting the children create their own music. Using bells, drums, egg shakers all add to music experience. And be sure and ask those caretakers to help the child make noise with them. Books for sensory story times are much different than for regular story time. Reading shorter stories, one book, no more than two, because children with special needs may not be able to focus on more than one book. Choose a book that has different textures in them and flaps with hidden images under them. The example on this slide of the flap book, Scott’s peek-a-boo– a Spot’s peek-a-boo shows the children that they can interact with the book, which is our goal with special kids. Sensory story times are usually much smaller in numbers so they can have a lot more interaction one on one. Having a visual representation of what is going to happen during the story time as represented in this image to the right on the bottom, it shows the order of the activities that gives caretakers and the child alike picture representations of what’s going to happen during that story time.

Children with disabilities like to have structure. Structure is the most important to disabled children especially those on the autistic spectrum. You can program one sensory story time each week in their library to experiment, but don’t give up on the first one because it will have low attendance. It will take awhile to build a base, but it will happen. Talking directly with caretakers when they come into the library creates a relationship between the library and the caregiver so they can build trust. Once that child starts coming to story time, it’s most important to consider them capable of learning literacy skills. Create that safe and comfortable environment and you will see disabled children strive. Lynn? >> So we’re going to talk for a little while about all of the skills and the definitions that we’ve gone over and how they relate to– how multi-literacies relate to getting children ready for school. These skills are connected to and support early literacy and school readiness skill development which are represented here on the screen.

And if you want to see a crossmatch of each of the areas of literacy development and readiness skills, it’s included in my book which there’s a link for at the end of our presentation, and it was published earlier this year by the American Library Association, so you can find it through their website as well. But I just want to give you a brief overview of each of the domains of readiness and how they’re supported by the multi-literacies that we discussed.

So on the right, you’ll see an image of all of the different domains of readiness for school readiness that are usually included within state definitions of school readiness. I will say that each state has its own definition, there’s not a standard, however these domains are usually the ones that you will see indicated within that definition. Approaches to learning deals with a child’s attitude toward learning.

So if a child feels successful and enjoys learning, then they would want to learn and they’ll actually seek opportunities for learning. So you can see how this might be linked to print motivation and reading. Incorporating visual literacy concepts, such as environmental print that we’ve talked about for instance can help a child feel successful, and thus more excited about learning. This is also linked to the child’s ability to acquire general knowledge through exploration and self-discovery. And we’ll talk a little bit about general knowledge next. General knowledge includes a child’s ability to reason and think mathematically and objectively. Any number of the multi-literacies that we’ve covered might contribute to a child’s ability to think in this way. For instance, using a multi-sensory approach to learning may provide a child with hands-on experience that then, in turn, will help the child retain important knowledge and information that they have taken in.

So the digital or media literacy-based activities may also offer experiences which help children gain general knowledge or mathematical reasoning skills. So you can see how these are all starting to overlap. Physical well-being includes the physical health of the child, but it also includes the child’s physical development, such as large or small motor skill development. Muti-sensory experiences that we’ve talked about can help a child develop muscle and hand-eye coordination. And in combination with writing and even mouse clicking practice, a child’s small motor skills can be developed, and this is supported by digital literacy practice. So, again, we’re seeing overlap. Social and emotional development is obviously directly connected to that social literacy that we talked about in the multi-literacies.

And the child’s ability to connect socially and meet the overall expectations of the climate that they’re in, helps the child to connect with others in the environment, and then to grow socially. So in turn, this helps a child feel confident which then leads to the positive development of a child’s approach to learning. So as you can see, there’s quite a bit of overlap as I keep mentioning between each of the multi-literacies and the school readiness domain. And as research shows, there’s a direct link between language development and literacy skill development. Social literacy is obviously tightly linked to this area as readiness development. And if we look at language in terms of communication rather than just a spoken word, we can see that language development is actually made up of each of the types of multi-literacy that we’ve already covered.

Language development in this way relates to the communication and reception of ideas and information. This is multi-literacy and it’s imported as by meeting the needs of the whole child. It gets crucial to the relevance of library programs and services that we, as those working with young children in libraries, understand. And this is vitally important for us to know and to be intentional about in our programs and service placing. So to do this, it’s crucial that that the library school support the attainment of this knowledge, the early childhood literacy coursework such as what’s going on at San Jose State University. So when you look at those six early literacy skills on the screen and the five best practices at the bottom of Every Child Ready to Read, you can see how all of these goes together to support what we’re doing in libraries and to reach the whole child in preparing them for school. Now Beth is going to talk a bit about the early childhood literacy courses and the importance that they play in library schools. >> So this slide shows me doing warmup at Oakland’s Fairyland where I do story times and storytelling.

And the topic of childhood literacy is being discussed widely as television commercials and radio advertisements inform readers and listeners how simply talking to a baby from birth can help with brain development. While the advertisements are targeting parents and caregivers, the community library plays a critical role in childhood development and activities and skills that promote literacy by providing library services to young children, their families, and caregivers. With this in mind, the California State Library launched its Early Learning with Families, known as ELF 2.0. It’s an initiative that was started in 2013. According to Suzanne Flint of the California State Library, very few library– and information science master’s programs offer any courses in child development. As a result, children’s librarians often find it difficult to develop programs that supports early learning in developmentally appropriate way and to have those programs to have a literary-based approach. If quality early learning programs aren’t there, we lost the opportunity to make lifelong library lovers. Inspired by the ELF initiative, the recognizing the need for more graduate level courses in this area was realized by the iSchool. So the iSchool is working with the California State Library to train future and current information professionals.

The early literacy class has been very well-received. Students have reported positive comments that in taking this class they feel work ready. They’re better at interviews and they have a basic understanding that will help them in their work with children. Many library directors and branch managers that I’ve spoken with at conferences and workshops have expressed their pleasure in hearing that this class is being offered as part of the Youth Services’ curriculum at San Jose State. I have included our course description and the mission showing– mission statement of the ELF initiative, showing how the course aligns with that.

We’re basically partners in trying to get this information into the hands of not only students inside the iSchool program, but also to working professionals in the field that may not have that base. I’m not going to read this to you, but I also want to do– tell you that the first five years of life are critical in the formation development of children in families. So that goes back to the multi-literacy that we talked about that comes through so much in story time programming in libraries. I wanted to also include, not to have everybody watching, read this, but as well as the competencies that students have to have coming out of the iSchool program, master’s in library and information science, these competencies for library serving children in public libraries which come from the Association of Library Service to Children or ALSC really demonstrate what the class is trying to do and include.

There’s a great commitment to the client group. The client group is our caretakers, our community members, the children that come, any teachers that we interact with. And, of course, we want to make sure that everyone in our library knows how important the commitment to those client groups are. So we want our students to acquire all three of these commitment to client group practices. Programming skills in our course curriculum are spread throughout the Youth Services’ curriculum. But here, we’re just– we’re talking about programming skills that are directly tied to literacy development. We want all of the literacies that Lynn and I have talked about to be incorporated into our class and to have a general understanding of not only the Every Child Ready to Read, but also to look at strategies like touchpoints which is the strategy that ELF is using. And we also want to make sure that students understand that this is a basic course that we’re delivering and that whenever possible and whenever they can have some professional development in early literacy that they should take that opportunity.

At the end of our presentation slides, we have included the information on how to contact each of us, and also a list of resources that we think are important and also helpful to you to have to understand what we’ve been talking about today. So Bill, I’ll hand it back to you and thanks everybody for attending today. >> Great. Thank you, Beth and Lynn for that great presentation. Do we have– thank you. There’s the slide I was looking for. Do we have any questions from any of our attendees? You can either type something into the chat box or if you’d like to– Beth the microphone and ask a question directly. You can do that. Meanwhile, I do have a question for Beth based on this slide back here.

Beth, I see that you’ve got Superman’s rapt attention, but, you know, it’s this guy in the back, in the light-colored shirt, he seems to be a little more focused on his phone. So maybe you need to bring a squirt gun or something next time and make your people stay riveted. >> You know, one of the interesting things is the warm up. This is where I tell the kids, you know, what we’re going to do and getting ready for opening song. And then I make all the parents stand up and turn their cellphones off.

So there you go. >> OK. That’s got– That just jumped out at me. Actually, it’s mostly Superman who jumped out at me. So here we have a question in the chat box. Obviously, you can read that. So if either of you or both of you want to address that, go right ahead, please. >> This is Lynn. ALSC has a wonderful blog that was created quite a while ago that sort of goes through step by step how to create story hours for children with special needs. There’s a little bit included in my book as well.

But basically, most story hours right now for kids with special needs might be defined as sensory story times. And from our own perspective at our library, when we offer them, we look at doing one for children who just have sensory overload issues and sensory integration issues. And so we’ll have a quiet sensory story time where we have low lighting and soft music and very subtle and quiet types of activities. We have a second one– oh, there’s a great link that Beth put up. And then we have a second sensory story time that we actually do for children who have high energy. So these would be kids who just simply can’t sit still while you’re reading, they need to fidget, they need to move around the room.

And we explain to parents that, you know, don’t worry if your child is up and moving around, they’re still listening, this is what they physically need to do. So those are two types that we have and both of those links that are up there that Beth put up. And actually, she’s put several, they’re all wonderful, wonderful links. So I don’t know, Beth, if you have anything you’d like to add. >> Well, you know, that was really good, what you said, Lynn. And these links will really help you see what other people are doing. I put up one from my– back in the old days, when I was a public librarian, a children’s librarian. This is the program that my library is now doing in Douglas County.

But I would suggest very strongly that if you have the opportunity in your local area to find a library that is doing sensory story times that you go and watch one. Once you see what they’re doing, you’ll see that there are many similarities between regular story times and sensory story times. But in that statement, sensory story times have very specific things that you do that are associated with the type of special needs child that is coming. So observing is a very key thing to do to help you incorporate one into your library so that it’s effective. So that’s all I would add to what Lynn said. >> And we also have a question from Thomas with regard to Mother Goose on the Loose training, if either of you would like to address that.

And then I’m going to advance the slides so people will have the contact information and stuff. >> Well, I think I’ll jump in here with Mother Goose on the Loose because that’s what is used at Fairyland in Oakland. And so we start our training there with basically looking at Mother Goose on the Loose. Mother Goose on the Loose is very tied to, of course, nursery rhymes, and singing and how rhyming and singing basically develop language in young children. We only do programs at Fairyland that go up through right before kindergarten. So everything we base on is in Mother Goose on the Loose training is around that age. And so I would recommend that you seek training. And there’s many– What I’ve done, Thomas is I have taken training in several different types of literacy, philosophy, Every Child Ready to Read.

I’ve become– becoming more and more familiar with touchpoint strategy, and I’ve also done the Mother Goose on the Loose training. So I’ve gotten something out of every one of those trainings. And I tend to lean towards Every Child Ready to Read as what I– my preference is, but I also see how I could also incorporate Mother Goose on the Loose into every one of my story times in an environment like Fairyland, outside of a public library. And Lynn, did you want to add anything? >> Yeah. I was just thinking. We use Mother Goose on the Loose a lot with our infant and toddler programs, and then we move on from there and do more Every Child Ready to Read. The two work in tandem really well together. Betsy Diamant-Cohen is the author of the Mother Goose on the Loose program and works a lot with Saroj Ghoting who is– someone who’s working heavily with Every Child Ready to Read.

So, those two work really well together. Because it is heavily nursery rhyme foundational type of thing, it works really, really well with the infant age. So, you know, you can look at doing it that way as well, but I totally agree, I would look at as many different types of curriculum that you can have and then you can combine and make that work for your environment and for whatever environment that you’re in. So yeah, that’s all I wanted to add, which is, you know, you might want to look at the age differences and use different things. >> Great. Thank you. Is there anymore questions? Oh, here we are, and we’ve got another one, so either of you can deal with that. Yes. They– The VIA Program, V-I-A, if you look that up, is associated with PLA and ALA.

The VIA Program has some different ways to bring in different cultures and some bilingual through the reading that you might do. I am also working, as what’s mentioned at the beginning, with Northern Kentucky University. And there is a bilingual story time workshop that’s being offered as part of a credential for early childhood librarianship or early library– early childhood library credential that’s being offered through Northern that is– it’s included within that. So we have a wonderful person who’s leading that, Katie Schurr .

And she is actually right now co-authoring a book for bilingual story time. So look for that as well. That will– That is being published by ALA. So you can go look– Google Northern Kentucky University Continuing Education, there are some things there for PV , and then it will include that, and then look for ALA for the book coming out by Katie Schurr. >> And then I’ll add that there’s a lot of online, really good online resources for looking at creating bilingual story times. I put REFORMAs up here. And I also want to suggest that when you get to the REFORMA page, you’ll see that there are great websites that lead you to children’s sites to help you get an idea of what can go into a bilingual story time. There’s actual link for bilingual resources and just some really good resources for librarians working with Latino children. So, you know, that– I’m just going to point out that in addition to what Lynn said, you know, check out the internet for some great sources as well.

Editors Note – Access to some of these resources may be limited depending on your location however you can normally access by buying mobile proxies to route your traffic through.

The University of Utah has a great bilingual story time program as well. >> So if you want to address Thomas’ question about the– some of the nursery rhyme issues, please? >> We have– There are so many out there that if you really start digging, you’ll find out reference to. If you Google Jbrary, that is an online blog that has lots of– it has nursery rhymes, it has songs, it has new songs and old songs. So you can find things that are not violent. I know what you mean if, you know, even think about the French song Alouette, it’s about plucking the feathers out of a bird. So there are some things Beth has put, thank you, Jbrary on there. And so you can find things, you know, today I think I just went about a wild bird and a soft bird, you know, that isn’t violent.

So if you dig, you can find them. It’s interesting because a lot of fairy tales and things like that, you’ll find that that’s the case too. If you look at Snow White, you got the wicked witch and that kind of thing. So, if you do some digging, they’re out there, but Jbrary is a great resource. >> And also I want to give a plug to Patrick Remer who’s the librarian at Pleasant Hills Library here in California. He’s designing story times around the flip concept. And this ties in well, Thomas, with your last question to us. He employs a lot of nursery rhymes, but he also lets the kids interact with what nursery rhymes they want to hear. So– And it’s amazing in his conversation with me at the CLA conference, we were talking about violence in a lot of the fairy tales and the nursery rhymes.

But he also thinks that if a child really wants to do like Humpty Dumpty Sat on a Wall and the other children will join in, he’ll then introduce that. But he, along with Lynn, is introducing a lot of things of Jbrary. And the reason I like Jbrary is because they give you so much detail and so many good resources including videos that gets you– that should get you really started. So I don’t mind doing them, I know they’re politically incorrect in a lot of ways, but I also see the enjoyment on the kids’ faces in doing something like Jack and Jill went up the hill. So that’s my contribution to that question. >> Great. Thanks. Again, if anybody else has a question, you can grab the mike, raise your hand, start typing.

I do have a question actually for our speakers. And this goes back to almost the first slide with the wordless literacy issue that we’re– was pretty much just illustrations. Has there been any research done on how effective those are if the illustrations are in color or in black and white. And then if they’re in color, do certain colors seem to be more effective than others? >> I haven’t seen any research as to color versus black and white. I know there are various books that do go through black and white. And then you’ll even find some picture books that, you know, every other page maybe color versus black and white. I will say that preschool child is usually going to be more drawn to those colorful pages. And, you know, we talk about how to hold the book when you’re reading obviously in library school.

And so part of that is making sure that it can be seen especially when you’re reading to a larger group of children, so you want to make sure that you’re choosing something that’s appealing, but that can also be seen from large groups and distances. So the color versus the black and white for that, I see an issue sometimes, you know, I might really love a black and white book. There are a couple that are just beautiful. But I don’t often choose them because it just doesn’t relate well in a group setting. As far as language development, the one book that was on a screen is– actually it’s called Bee and Bird. And I use that in my story hours, my school readiness story hours. And we talk about whether or not you can tell a story without words printed on the page. And it’s so interesting because children automatically, you know, who are used to being read to tell me, “No, we can’t, we can’t read the book without words on the page.” And then we go through and they actually help tell the story by looking at those pictures.

And that book is interesting because it gives perspective from faraway and close-up, so you get to see just a smidge of the picture and you– and the children have to figure out what they think it is, and so they’re really involved. And so, for me, that type of book really invites narration skills and vocabulary building. So I really like to use wordless books for that reason. Beth has put something interesting down here so I’ll let her address the link that she added. >> Well, I, you know, in preparation for our presentation today, I started looking at a lot of the areas Lynn was going to cover so that there was no overlay. And I came across things that are associated with this from experts in the field. I couldn’t really find any studies, but I didn’t really go into any academic databases to really look around. But one of the things I did notice in this first link, they talk about colors and what colors draw the eye to the page.

And I think they’ll– you know, looking at that link would answer the question about is there a difference between color and black and white in how children identify with the pictures and start making their own stories. And they suggest, you know, to really build on visual literacy that is associated with color. So that’s why you see in those picture books not very many example of black and white. So, you know, and the second one is– as part of reading recovery which is part of Diane Dumetz Carry’s work. And she basically looks at the world in color. And she looks at the world of color especially where children are concerned. So those two resources might be interesting for everybody to look at just so they can understand the power of a picture book that has no words in it. >> Great. Thank. Looks like we have at least one more person typing, so I’ll wait and see what comes in from Arly . OK. Any other questions or comments? It seemed none, then let me again thank the speakers for your excellent presentation.

And, again, the recording information is there. If you’re part of the iSchool, that recording information will be made available to you. And then about 10 days or so, we’ll have a YouTube version. And you see those resources and everything. So, again, thank you very much for your participation. .

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